Topic 3 Activities

Objective: to introduce the basics of different types of data through engagement in an interactive and collaborative exercise.

Duration: 25 minutes

Materials: relevant objects (blocks, cards etc.), papers for notes


  1. Teacher introduces different types of data, by using the analogy of different types of fruit: some fruits are sweet, some sour, some round, some are flat etc. Ask Ss to list different types of fruits and describe their characteristics.
  2. Teacher could use physical objects to represent different data types e.g block of different sizes and colours to represent numbers of different types, or cards with words on them to represent text data.
  3. Teacher presents a story in class: (Suggested story)
    A farmer who needs to keep track of how many apples he has in his orchard. To do this, he uses a variable to store the number of apples. Teacher could use the physical blocks to represent the apples and the variable to represent the container where they are placed into.
    The farmer also needs to keep track of whether each apple is ripe or not, so he uses Boolean value to represent this information.  Use cards with the words ‘ripe’ and ‘unripe’ written on the for the representation of this data.
  4. Students (grouped) are now asked to create their own stories using different types of data. Teacher provides examples or support when needed.
  5. Groups of students will present their stories.

Objective: to gain practical understanding of how smart home automation can improve quality of life and the role of conditional statements.

Duration: 25 minutes

Materials: Arduino board and breadboard, LED lights, Motion sensor, Light sensor, Temperature and humidity sensor, Jumper wires, USB cable, Computer with Arduino IDE


  1. Teacher introduces students to smart home automation and sensors.
  2. Teacher divides students into small groups and provide materials for creating a smart home automation system.
  3. Explain the goal of creating a system that turns on lights, adjusts temperature and humidity, and turns off lights using sensors and conditional statements.
  4. Provide a list of challenges for the groups to complete using conditional statements.
  5. Allow students to work together to complete challenges and experiment with different configurations and coding techniques.
  6. Have students share their projects and reflect on their learning.
  7. Remind students to practice good safety habits.

Objective: to practise and develop understanding of conditional statements in programming.

Duration: 45 minutes

Materials: Various sensors, (light, sound, temperature, motion etc), Arduino boards/Raspberry Pi computers, Cables and breadboards to connect the sensors and microcontrollers, Computers with programming software installed, such as the Arduino IDE or Python


  1. Teacher introduces conditional statements and their use in programming.
  2. Divide students into small groups and provide each group with a set of sensors and microcontrollers.
  3. Explain that their goal is to use the sensors and microcontrollers to create conditional statements that trigger certain actions based on the sensor data.
  4. Give students a list of tasks or challenges that they must complete using conditional statements. For example, they might have to write code that turns on a light when the light sensor detects that the room is too dark or turns on a fan when the temperature sensor detects that the room is too hot.
  5. Provide students with the necessary materials and tools to connect the sensors and microcontrollers and write the code for the conditional statements.
  6. Students work together in their groups to complete the challenges. Teacher encourages experimentation with various sensor configurations and coding techniques.
  7. Students share their projects with the class and explain how their group used conditional statements to control the sensors and trigger the actions.

Objective:  to understand the concept of loops in programming and gain familiarity with the illustration of loops in solving a real-life problem. 

Duration: 20 minutes

Materials: Various sensors, (light, sound, temperature, motion etc), Arduino boards/Raspberry Pi computers, Cables and breadboards to connect the sensors and microcontrollers, Computers with programming software installed, such as the Arduino IDE or Python.


  1. Teacher introduces Loops in computer programming.
  2. Teacher introduces the following or similar story:

Now I want you to recall the farmer that we’ve worked on before. The farmer grows crops and needs to water them every single day in order to keep them healthy. The farmer uses a water can to water each plant individually, but this is very time-consuming and and she gets tires from this tedious work.

The teacher can use props and other sensory elements to make it more memorable, e.g. use a toy watering can and a small plot of soil with plants to demonstrating the water of crops.

One day, the farmer hears about the sprinkler system mentioned by another farmer in the village. a new invention that can water all the plants at once and can be set to water the plants automatically at the same time every day. The farmer learns about the sprinkler system and decides to install one in her fields.

At this point, the teacher can explain how the sprinkler system uses a loop to water the plants automatically. The program that controls the sprinkler system repeats the instructions to turn on the water and water the plants for a set amount of time, and then it repeats the instructions again at the same time the next day.

  1. As the teacher tells the story, he/she can ask questions to encourage the students to think about how the concept of loops applies to the story, such as the following:

“How could the farmer use a loop to water her crops more efficiently?“

“What would happen if the sprinkler system didn’t use a loop to repeat the instructions?”