Topic 2 External elements of a building

The main structural elements of a building are: foundations, walls, ceilings, roofs, columns, arches, vaults. Openings such as doors and windows are also important elements.

When planning these elements, the architect must take into account external conditions such as weather and atmospheric conditions. For example, in Spain or Italy, where it is very hot in summer, some rooms are hidden from the sun, and planned small courtyards provide only light.

In Poland, when winters were cold and snowy, it was necessary to design sloping roofs so that the snow would fall and not tear the roof.

Pitched roof, designed for climate with heavy snowfall (including Poland)


Flat roof not cleared of snow and badly constructed.

Katowice, Trade Hall roof collapse, 2006, 65 people died.