Topic 1 Introduction

Architecture is closely related to urban planning. Therefore, the designed buildings should be included in the general urban plan of the city/housing estate. 

The importance of unified urban planning can be seen on the example of medieval towns located in Poland under the Magdeburg law.

City plan

View of Toruń, 1641, by Matthäus Merian
Public Domain

An interesting attempt to create an ideal city is the example of urban planning in Zamość, listed on the UNESCO Heritage list. Private city founded in 1580 by Jan Zamoyski on the trade route linking western and northern Europe with the Black Sea.  

Zamoyski commissioned the design of the city to the Italian architect Bernardo Morando, who referred to anthropomorphic concepts.

Plan of Zamość is based on the human body – as if lying on your back with your head facing west. In the place of the head, a palace was located, i.e. the seat of the head of the family, the most important decisions regarding the life of the city and its inhabitants were issued from the palace.

The backbone is Grodzka Street, which runs through the entire city, the lungs are the Zamość Academy and the collegiate church, the town hall is the heart, and the bastions can be considered as arms and legs.  

City plan

Zamoscium, Nova Poloniae civitas, à magnifico ejus regni Cancellario à fundamentis exstructa, 1635
Éditeur : [A. Hierat Jr.] (Cologne)
Public Domain